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Solutions of the Afghan crisis and way out of it

For the last four decades the tragedy of Afghanistan, martyred huge numbers of people besides taking millions of lives hundreds of thousands impurities, orphans, widows and unsecured and unprotected their lives and forced to leave the country and migrated to neighbouring countries and in any other counties in the world besides having big numbers of the Internally Displaced People (IDPs) inside Afghanistan which created the miss fortune and paved the way to distortion and scorched the country.

To provide an everlasting and stable peace, we need some sympathetic expert to provide honest services based on nation-building peace experiences with compassionate and patriotic politics. Can you release it under the same roof? Where we can visit inside and outside the country, they can be knowledgeable and intellectuals and they as well as be a people of compassionate and patriotic elites, which allows you to provide you with peace and stability, as well as to have the ability to discuss, remote and responsible content in Afghanistan Peace, Law prosperity sovereignty and freedom.

The Madrid Peace Conference was held in March 2019, organized by the Assembly of Scientists and Experts of Afghanistan (ASEA) in Madrid, which was established in March 1995 in Europe, with the participation of more than five scientists and experts from inside and outside Afghanistan.

Similarly, there have been dozens of peace talks regarding Afghanistan at home and abroad, and all people want lasting peace in the country. And by sharing such patriotic figures, they are discussing the doctrine of peace professionals at home and abroad and enduring the tolerable prescriptions of our war-torn country. ‌‌Prior to issuing these tolerance edicts, they examine the factors of the critical situation in Afghanistan. Therewith some suggestions or viewpoints will provide fruitful results; we try to use theories and practical proven ways for solutions. In the same article, he [h3] researched proved using the methods and experiences of "long-term" wars in the country, the region and the world. Here we are talking about war and peace. The answers to the following questions shed light on Afghanistan's ways out of the crisis

I will draw your kind attention to it over time.


1. What is the solution to the Afghan crisis and way exit off of it?
2. What is war, its definition, political nature, origins, motives, and its critical situation in Afghanistan, and the factors behind the war?
3. Did he[h4] get out of the civil war and proxy war? 
4. How to make peace with the opposition?
5. Is it possible to make peace with Taliban Tahrik?
6. Suggestions and strategies to ensure permanent peace in Afghanistan
7. Conclusion

2. What is the political nature of war? The political nature of war covers up the foreign and domestic policies of a state.

 we read the sermon of Seyyed Mehdi, a university professor and one of the foreign policy experts

 Wednesday 30 /10/1394 on Mandgar website[h8]

World-View / Nature-and-Knowledge-Foreign-Policy-Afghanistan Foreign policy refers to a set of perspectives on the actions of a government based on multiple components of national interests versus other actors in the international environment. In other words, foreign policy is the reflection or action-oriented policy or our cultural, military, economic, social, and diplomatic capacity within the internal sphere that is maintained, displayed, and enhanced in interaction with the actors of the external environment. Therefore, in foreign policy, we strive to preserve, display, and enhance our multifaceted or pluralized security, economic, cultural, and social components in interaction with external actors. And it's diplomatic

2- What is the origin of Afghanistan? The war in our country has a long history, which has been accompanied by the intervention of the superpowers due to its geographical location.

The roots of Afghanistan's civil war must be traced to the policies of foreign countries, especially Westerners and Pakistanis, towards Afghanistan.

We read from the Wiki website

World-View / Nature-and-Knowledge-Foreign-Policy-Afghanistan Foreign policy refers to a set of perspectives on the actions of a government based on multiple components of national interests vis-.-Vis other actors in the international environment. In other words, foreign policy is the reflection or action-oriented policy or our cultural, military, economic, social, and diplomatic capacity within the internal sphere that is maintained, displayed, and enhanced in interaction with the actors of the external environment. Therefore, in foreign policy, we strive to preserve, display, and enhance our multifaceted or pluralized security, economic, cultural, and social components in interaction with external actors. And it's diplomatic

2- What is the origin of Afghanistan? The war in our country has a long history, which has been accompanied by the intervention of the superpowers due to its geographical location.

The roots of Afghanistan's civil war must be traced to the policies of foreign countries, especially Westerners and Pakistanis, towards Afghanistan.

We read from the Wiki website

›wiki› c ... Results and War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Checked: 1.2.2020

Like the first Afghan-British war and the second Afghan-British war

The First Afghan-British War (1839-1842) took place in the southern part of the Helmand Valley. The war took place between the forces of the British East India Company and Afghanistan

Second Afghan-British War:

December 9, 2008, · 2009 M. Second war: this and that. He came out of nowhere and gave him two. ›gh ... PDF war the second is both

Red Army invasion and presence in Afghanistan

On December 23, 1979 (December 24, 1979) by order

The Soviet leader, Berzhnev, arrived in Afghanistan in the 1940s

Mikhail Gorbachev, the country's last leader, began his retreat on May 25, 1988, and the last group left Afghanistan on February 17, 1988.[h10]

Checked : 11.2.22020


Presence and invasion of US military units

It has been 19 years since US troops landed and arrived in Afghanistan

The United States sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001 and is now in its 19th year, but the only result has been a worsening of the situation, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.



In real terms, this particular geography, the various complexes categorized ties provided by the specialists, the external invasions, the foreign campaigns, the subsequent anarchy and the king of authoritarianism, each of them can be solved by using other solutions, or at your disposal. put. A rational and cohesive social interaction in the field of narrow-minded tariffs and asylum seekers in the community can easily succeed. All these favourable historical contexts of war are a bad and possible sign of the end. Our whole history is full of this catastrophic situation.

Interview with Dr Rahim Rasool, author, translator and journalist with Sadr Zia-ud-Din, director of Afghanistan's Non-Prayer Department.

Afghanistan Today



What is the "crisis" first and foremost?

A crisis is an event that occurs suddenly and increasingly and can lead to a dangerous and unstable situation for an individual, a group, or a community. The crisis can be possible for you and can allow you to have more power. 

Crisis in terms of type and special situation. A crisis is a great and special pressure that can break the patent license and also by allowing them and distributors, threats, dangers and special assistance to you is possible. [1] mention the war factor, which elements include the war in Afghanistan? 

The current war in Afghanistan is based on the country's geopolitical position based on two domestic and regional factors, which have hunted political process and peace including the country's political situation.

1. In the regional factor, we can mention the threat of regional countries, especially Afghanistan's neighbours, and most especially Pakistan, Iran have been interfering in the internal affairs and worsen the situations. 

2- Some of the regional "Sabotage" factor within the framework of major political, economic and military competitions.


 Regional sabotage means, to sabotage and facilitate Equivalent to prevent peace and sabotage process.

1- Regional factor!

First of all, we cannot ignore the intervention of neighbouring countries, especially Pakistan, Iran, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan China cannot be ignored.

Pakistan has always wrongly put its efforts to occupy My homeland of Afghanistan since its birth.

Pakistan as a neighbour of Afghanistan has repeatedly intervened in Afghanistan's internal affairs to gain the support of international lobbies such as the United States and its interests, have been instrumental in strengthening the opposition to the ruling power in Afghanistan, supporting and representing proxy warfare, intermediary warfare or war. A power of attorney is a situation in which the powers involved try to weaken or suppress the power of other countries or armed groups that are at war with the opposing power or its allies, instead of going directly to war with each other with financial, weapons, and propaganda support.

Imposes in Afghanistan.

Authoritative sources <Wikimedia Media> from Afghanistan Daily News

Al-Qaeda terrorist nests or "fundamentalism" or "Extremism"

The focus is on the maximum concepts of religion or ideology in all aspects of thought and lifestyle


Extremism and support for them is mentioned

Pakistan has backed opponents of the Afghan government, including al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda is an international military and Islamic fundamentalist organization founded in 1987 during the Soviet war in Afghanistan by Osama bin Laden in Peshawar. It continued until 2011 under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. It continues to be known as the leader and the last Amir of al-Qaeda. The organization operates in the form of various transnational military networks and as a Sunni Islamic movement, intending to combat the influences and interventions of non-Muslims on the Islamic world and the spread of Islam around the world. The majority of al-Qaeda members consider themselves Salafi followers. It is on the blacklist of terrorist organizations of many governments and international organizations, including

The United Nations Security Council is located in NATO[h11], the European Union and the United States. And continue to support 15[1] settings[h12]

The largest coalition of the Mojahedin included these seven groups, which united in 1985 in the Pakistani city of Peshawar. All of these groups were Sunni Muslims, and except the Jamiat-e-Islami, the rest were mostly Pashtun Mujahideen. In terms of political beliefs, the first four groups believed in political values ​​and the establishment of a Shari'a-based government and the last three groups were mostly Sunni and had a good relationship with the appearance of the ousted King of Afghanistan:

Most of the parties of the branch of the Islamic Unity Party, led by Abdul Ali Mazari, were recruited in 1989, after which the Unity Party became the main representative of the Hazaras of Afghanistan. From the website

They managed Afghanistan during the war, inciting the Taliban and training their destructive groups by sending terrorists and suicide bombers with their equipment in Afghanistan.

The Iranian government has continued to play a fundamentalist role in supporting his country's interests


 According to the report of "Afghanistan Information Network" dated 6.7.1, News Code 16.78 by Abdul Hamid>

the United States succeeds in defeating the Shiites in Afghanistan through Pakistan and the Taliban, the United States will take the war from Afghanistan to Iran. For Iran, fighting the US targets in Afghanistan is too far-fetched to advance the war inside Iran

Our country has been opposed to its rule for many years by the "proxy" war, in which the countries themselves are not directly involved in the war, by training and sending people inside other countries.

We read from the website

Checked : 14.2.2020

Proxy warfare, intermediary warfare, or proxy warfare is a situation in, which the powers involved try to weaken other countries or armed groups that are at war with the opposing power or its allies instead of going directly to war with each other with financial, weapons, and propaganda support. They give it power or pressure.

In many cases, due to the high military power of the main powers, their direct military conflict with each other can lead to high political, economic and cost lives for both sides, and therefore the parties try to enter without a full-scale war. Hit the other side by supporting third parties and governments. In other cases, the two main powers may have engaged in direct warfare with each other, but at the same time in other regions, with the support of groups and third countries, they may engage in proxy warfare with the opposite power. There is almost no pure proxy war because groups that are at war with a particular country are usually looking for their interests and goals, which may not be the same as the interests and goals of the country that supports them.

The most common use of intermediate wars is usually during the Cold War because it can continue to put pressure on the other side without direct conflict with the opposing power and entering a major and very costly war.

Neighbouring countries have devastated the Great Depression, which has devastated the economy and destroyed all of Afghanistan's suburbs and have suffered countless casualties.

The Taliban is still at large in the Free Wiki

From the website 

The Taliban (students) are a group of Islamist clerics opposed to the Afghan government who share religious dogmatism with Hanafi and Wahhabi schools and Salafi jihadist views. The group has been involved in the war in Afghanistan since its inception in 1994 and has ruled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001 under the name of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

He is a staunch opponent of the US military base, which has been in talks with the Taliban for more than 18 months. The US government has reached a final agreement without the presence of an official Afghan delegation and considers the Afghan government a puppet of the US despite its efforts. Zalmai Khalilzad, US Special Representative for the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), has refused to negotiate.


The presence of US military bases in Afghanistan is the main sign of this provocative approach and the highest level of concern in the region. On the other hand, the significant entry of. ISIS began operations in Afghanistan in 2019

 From the territory of Iraq-Syria and mainly the citizens of the Caucasus and the increasing deployment of ISIS from the ISIS bases, Afghanistan has become the hottest spot in the world and the fire has caused more regional unrest The people of Afghanistan, whose many years of achievements have been earned with great sacrifices, are not willing to lose it to the Taliban's presence again, except that the Taliban have been preparing for the New constitution for several years with political, social and cultural achievements.

The Afghan peace and war process is still ongoing, which is beyond the scope of this article

2- He also mentioned the regional Sabotage factor in the context of major political, economic and military competitions.

In the writings of Aref Erfan, the political consciousness of Arrow Pa

It has come to be one of these economic factors

Afghanistan's growing narcotics crop keeps US import wheel afloat - Mashal political, social and cultural Afghan News Paper - Mashal political, social and cultural Afghan News Paper

Mashal political, social and cultural Afghan News Paper afghan newspaper Afghanistan afghan newspaper Afghanistan

Which is arranged from reliable sources of this article

(* 1) Global Racer - Washington Blog, dated 11/13/2013, entitled Drug War

(* 2) Global Racer - October 21, 2013, as the war in Afghanistan is worth it because of its natural mine and gas!

(* 3) Asia Times, April 1, 2010, Opium War in Afghanistan

Checked :20.1.2020


Another major driver of Afghanistan's war machine over the past four decades has been Afghanistan's largest drug trafficker, which ranks third in the world after oil and arms trade. This process is being vigorously pursued by the international mafia, and the only climate in which this great global trade is breathtaking is the dominance of peace in the country.

Today, with all four decades of war in place, all opposition forces have concluded that the crisis of the war in Afghanistan and the achievement of lasting peace through dialogue and negotiation can be a milestone and bring peace to the country. The following suggestions are needed:

1. Afghanistan needs national and international convergence to achieve peace and also needs professional capacities.

1. Afghanistan urgently needs professional to achieve peace, national and international convergence

Which was written by Rahmani-Hosseini, 2012: 152-154). The book is a contemporary look in the field of foreign policy and international relations.

 Review of Zarghuna Wali 

It is quoted that:

Lack of active, specialized and committed forces, non-use of Afghanistan's membership in international organizations are the challenges that disrupt the country's diplomatic system with many interruptions and disturbances."

Has encountered "-


But in general, in the field of foreign policy, we should use three global triangles, although the theory of the triangle that "Influential past takes you to present and present into future. The idea of ​​this future triangle its theorist is Soheil Enayatullah, a pioneer of futures research in Southeast Asia.

 Source: Contemporary Look Quarterly

. A disciplinary framework with a combination of the past three tenses, present and future

 Using this theory, we can also have foreign strategic relations in future policies. With the experience of wars, I have past and present shortcomings and positive directions for the future.

Using this theory, we should persuade neighbouring countries and the United Nations to support peace and eradicate war and terrorism to protect the national interests of our country.

As in writing

(Aghabakhshi-Afsharrad, 1383: 183). Quarterly Journal of Contemporary Perspective, Zarghooneh, Vol


In other words, national interests are the foreign policy of a strategy or policy that the decision-makers of a country plan against other countries or international entities, and that means achieving specific goals that are based on their interests and the national interests of our country. The restriction is on the domestic and foreign policy programs of the countries.

 Hand (Alton, 1998: 21).

 Quarterly Journal of Contemporary Look

However, there is no clear boundary between domestic and foreign policy, although fortunately further progress has been made in the peace process, and the United States continues role play the US special envoy to the United States, Zalmai Khalilzad, at the instigation of the Taliban. It is one of the strongest sides of the war. It was mostly hosted by Moscow, Qatar, Pakistan and others.

Internal Affairs

Whenever we look at the role of the Afghan people in securing peace,

In that case, Afghanistan needs to establish a national government, national unity and solidarity, and to form a strong national army and an independent, free, and democratic system based on national participation and the establishment of a national resurrection away from ethnic and regional linguistic prejudices.

"In the set of actors and activists who have recognized the legitimacy of the current Afghan system, the two main forces, the Liberal Democrats and the jihadist Islamists, have the best chance of realizing their aspirations for future government and domestic and foreign policy." They are the main partners in power and somehow include the sources and positions of power among them. 

 Hand Sajjadi, 1333: 232);

 Quarterly Journal of Contemporary Perspective

⁃⁃ However, it is difficult and time-consuming to combine these two discourses, each of which interprets political phenomena and the world of politics with certain principles and methods.

That foreign use could play a valuable role in the peace process, on one hand, to gain international support, especially Afghanistan's strategic allies such as the United States, and on the other hand, as far as we know, Pakistan, which has always been a terrorist supporter and proxy of the Afghan war. It also suppresses the peace negotiations.

on Pakistan in the current situation are many more uses besides Terrorism. According to the claim of the former Secretary of State: From foreign policy doctrine to the academic formulation of foreign policy doctrine, we have consciously turned to" multilateral foreign policy and tried to move with countries with different political systems, moving from national interests. Let's connect the people of Afghanistan. "This has been a key factor in determining our foreign policy."

Quarterly Journal of Contemporary Perspective  (Arezoo, 2009: 108-109).


If Afghanistan wants to get rid of or oppose internal and external forces in its foreign policy, it should be continuing the policy of multilateralism is the most sensible and safest option. Of course, multilateralism is a system that has relatively stable security and economy, so if there are no foreign troops in Afghanistan's current government is heavily dependent on. It's widely accepted that the Afghan Government will not lose long based on economic decency, security and political assistance, and it is no secret that without the US intervention, Afghanistan's current regime has little chance of survival. In such a situation, talking about multilateralism will be considered an exaggeration. However, Afghanistan has to free itself from the shackles of a global pole and pursue multilateralism in the true sense of the word. What's more, "With all the achievements that multilateralism has had in Afghanistan's foreign policy, it has failed to bring Afghanistan into the situation? Ideal for foreign relations."

Quarterly Journal of Contemporary Perspective

 (Rahmani-Hosseini, 1319: 529-531)


"The path to multilateralism goes beyond regional ties. Regionalism manifests itself mainly in the face of regional organizations and institutions. The importance of regionalism is that all the needs of countries in a region, such as politics, security, culture and economy, are taken into account, and in fact, the future of countries in the region depends on the economy and economic support of neighbouring countries and theories must be preserved. Here are some suggestions on how to look or get an appointment for peacekeeping.


1. The independence of the state and the interference of foreign interventions are necessary to end a proxy war.

Governments can interrupt foreign interventions only when you achieve a universal and inclusive government in which all ethnic groups, from the leadership level to the end, have equal rights in all political, social and cultural spheres, while in accordance with the country's constitution. The multinational government is accused of establishing a single, strong government for the development and growth of ethnic prejudices, and is stuck with the challenges of unemployment, suicide, murder, drug addiction, especially among young people, forgetting the younger generation, escalating violence against women. Lack of economy, and the height of the war on the fronts

2. People's and national state credentials are considered necessary in the country

3. In order to ensure lasting peace in the country with the establishment of the national government, it is necessary to ensure national participation

4. Peace must be secured from a position of power to bring with it the many years of achievement that have come with the exorbitant costs of neighbouring countries and the sacrifices of the Afghan people, provided that we have a clear definition of national interests, national participation and national sovereignty. We have international pressures and lobbies on Afghan politics, especially in the United States

5.I need professional opacity

The lack of professional opacity in defining domestic politics as the nationalist and foreign policy will not be ineffective even that

Lack of active, specialized and committed forces, non-use of Afghanistan's membership in international organizations are the challenges that disrupt the country's diplomatic system with many interruptions and disturbances.

Has encountered "

 Rahmani-Hosseini, 1319: 152-154)

6. The regional consensus is one of the most fundamental approaches to peace, which has fostered peace and cooperation with foreign countries through professional opacity.

7. It is necessary to establish a national dialogue and to ensure the national well for peace

8. The peace dialogue is out of the private sphere and is transparent in the presence of the Afghan people.

9. The role of national organizations and parties, civil society and social organizations must be determined

10. Peace must guarantee the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country and guarantee civil values.

Recent peace talks with the US delegates.

(Zalmai Khalil Zadzalmeli Khalilzad (Pashto Khalilzad) (born March 22, 1960) is the United States Special representative for the Peace of Afghanistan. [1] He was the highest-ranking Muslim official in George W. Bush's administration. Checked: 11/3/220




High-ranking Taliban hits such as (Mullah Baradar)

Who is Mullah Baradar?

Mullah Baradar was born in 1968 in the Dehraud district of Uruzgan province and played an important role in the war against Soviet forces in the Kandahar region in his youth. Mullah Baradar studied religious studies in Pakistan and was the group's second deputy during the Taliban era.

From Taliban Tahrik to hosting the foreign countries of Moscow, Abu Dhabi, the centre of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the centre of Qatar Doha are among the achievements of this process, but unfortunately in these negotiations, the Taliban are still insane and the Afghan government has not accepted its participation in the peace process. And this one-on-one process with theUnited States is behind closed doors, focusing more on US interests and the Taliban's demands for the government, politics and the Afghan people, especially women, who have experienced the bitter experience of a backward government. 

The Taliban are worried that we are on the verge of negotiations. We have been reminded above that we must not call for peace in the interests of our people and our country, and to destroy the achievements of thousands of our defenceless and war-torn people with the sacrifice and blood of all sides. In the process of peace talks, including the United Nations and international supporters of peace in Afghanistan, I urge you to ensure that global peace is achieved by preserving all the achievements of our people in all areas, with the overwhelming use of resolute support by the Security Council. He ignored the situation in Afghanistan and its consequences for world peace and security.

The report is based on Security Council Resolution 68/11/88 and Security Council Resolution # 2405 (2018), which calls on the United Nations to report on developments in Afghanistan every three months.

2. This report provides new information on the activities of the United Nations in Afghanistan, including political, human, and developmental and human rights efforts since the presentation of the previous report. 2018/165 / A / 72/768-S (February 27, 2018).

Website: UNAMA

Checked: 12/1/2020


In a nutshell, our country needs to ensure a comprehensive, national and people's peace

Today's achievements, which have come at the cost of the blood of our people and the great sacrifices and the destruction of the country's economy, will not leave our allies and neighbouring countries alone at this point in history, but with the support of the Afghan people.

 A good platform for all the people of this country to live well and with dignity. Turbidity, hostility, discrimination and injustice, superiority and privilege will disappear from the pages of our people's lives. Law and justice should be judged and enforced in all areas, especially in the area of ​​equal legal rights and national welfare. To have inclusive, universal and lasting peace.

The unity and solidarity with each other is valuable in the peace process of Afghanistan. Far from unity and solidarity, we cannot achieve the future, prosperity of the homeland and the youth of the next generation.


Dear compatriots, unite for the common cause of peace.

Long live independent and free Afghanistan


[1] 1- The Islamic Jamiat of Afghanistan led by Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Sha Masoud

2. Hezb I Islami - Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Pashtun Branch -

3- Islamic Party - a branch led by the purely Pashtun Younes

 4- Islamic Union led by Rasool Sayyaf Pashtun

5. Afghan Islamic National Front led by Pir Ahmad Gilani with Sufi leanings

6. The National Salvation Front of Afghanistan led by Sabghatullah Mujaddidi Pashtun -

7. The movement of the Islamic Revolution under the leadership of Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi

The eight-member coalition included the Shiite Mujahideen, who mostly belonged to the Hazara people:

 8- Hezbollah Afghan

9- Nasr Organization led by Seyyed Hossein Hosseini Darreh Sufi led by Abdul Ali Mazari

10. The Revolutionary Guards of Afghanistan under the leadership of Mohammad Akbari

11- Islamic Revolutionary Council led by Seyyed Ali Beheshti

. 12- Islamic Revolution Movement led by Nasrullah Mansour

 13- The Islamic sanctity of Afghanistan led by Asf Mansour

. 14- Unity of Islamic struggles led by a simple interviewer

 15 Islamic Raad Party of Afghanistan led by Abdul Hafar Naderi and Ismail Balkhi




See the examples:


Toom, Victor (2018): Finding Closure, Continuing Bonds, and Code notification After the 9/11 Attacks. In Medical anthropology 37 (4), pp. 267–279. 


Their, Alex & Worden, Scott (2017): Political Stability in Afghanistan: A 2020 Vision and Roadmap. In USIP, 10/7/2017. Available online at, checked on 14/9/2019. 

BBC (2018): US military to cancel $300M in Pakistan aid over terror groups. Available online at, checked on 29/9/2019. 



The philosophy of war  Available online at  Checked : 2/3/2020


The First Afghan-British War:Available online at Checked : 16/2/2020



Nature and knowledge of Afghanistan's foreign policy

Vision of Seyyed Mehdi, university professor and one of the foreign policy experts. Available online  at :// Checked: 1/20/2020.


The philosophy of the Second World War. Available online at › gh...PDF › wiki Checked : 11/11/2019


Russia war in Afghanistan. Available online at Checked : 11/2/2019



Result-19-years-US-military-presence-in-Afghanistan. Available online at Checked : 3/2/2020



Origin-and-Final-Conflicts-and-Current-War-in-Afghanistan. Available online at Checked : 2/21/2020



Results and crisis. Available online at Checked : 2/20/2020



Solution to the Afghanistan Crisis. Available online at Checked : 1/2/2020



Regional sabotage the meaning .Available online at  Checked : 2/23/2020


Al Qaeda. Available online at Checked : 2/2/2020       



Fundamentalism. Available online at Checked : 3/21/2020




Afghanistan Mojahedin . Available online at Checked : 12/2/2019



Proxy War. Available online at Checked : 3/2/2020




The emergence of the Taliban. Available online at Checked : 2/21/2020




Cultivation of narcotics in Afghanistan and import to the United States

That they earn an annuity from it annually.Available online at Checked: 2/20/2020